Coast essay for upsc ias challenges and Solutions CRZ notification 2018 (Shailesh Nayak committee)

Coast essay for upsc ias challenges and Solutions CRZ notification 2018 (Shailesh Nayak committee)

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CRZ notification 2018 (Shailesh Nayak committee) Coast essay for upsc ias challenges and Solutions ?

Coast
Recent
CRZ notification 2018 (Shailesh Nayak committee): relaxes construction norms in
CRZs to promote hospitality and tourism, port construction and real estate sector
bundles hazard line and vulnerability status as appendage
temporary tourism facilities on beaches (upto 10m from HTL)
CRZ IIIA: high density rural areas: no development zone 50m from HTL
CRZ-I, CRZ-IV: clearances from centre; others from CZMA (state level)
20m NDZ for islands
Threats
natural:
riverine erosion
erosion by sea water
anthropogenic:
pollution by industries
huge footprints of hospitality sector, tourism sector
sand mining, coastal erosion
deforestation of mangroves for medicine, timber etc
higher incidence of cyclones, tsunamis
climate change → rise in sea levels; higher incidence of disasters; ocean
acidification (coral bleaching)
Solutions
CRZ regulations under EPA,
EIA norms to access ecological impact of projects in advance
Coast 2
blue flag certification for coasts (eg: Chandrabhaga beach, Odisha)
satellites and drones to assess status of mangroves, corals etc
plogging promotion through runs etc
MoEFCC’s guidelines to regulate sand mining
coastal embankments
Netherlands polders: build dykes, pump out water, plantation to stabilize land →
fertile lands (20% of country’s land; 2nd largest exporter of farm food)
What else?
Vembanad model for tracking illegal constructions near coasts (historical satellite
data)
Way forward
Mangroves
lost 40% mangrove cover in last century; slightly improving off late
importance:
lessen impact of ocean originated disasters like cyclones, tsunamis
protect coast from wave and tidal erosion
shelter and nurture rich coastal ecosystems
rich carbon sinks
useful for coastal communities directly (wood, medicines etc) and indirectly
(fishery etc)
filter water
natural cycling of nutrients
threats: urbanisation, industrialisation → encroachment
industrial and household waste dumping, tourism footprint
Coast 3
increasing frequency of cyclones, cloudbursts etc (Amphan: 40% mangroves in
Bengal damaged)
illegal sand mining
deforestation for timber, medicines
sedimentation
invasive species
most not listed on IUCN red list
solutions:
indigenous communities led conservation efforts
stricter regulations under CRZ (2018 notification paves way for construction and
tourism industry); EIA
satellites and drones to monitor damage
restoration efforts (5cr mangroves to be planted to offset Amphan damage)
Coast 4
Coast 5
Corals
symbiosis of polyp and zooxanthella algae (former provide shelter, latter provides
oxygen, food, clean waste)
produce calcareous deposits (sourced from seawater); form features over
generations
presence in India: Andaman-Nicobar, Lakshadweep, Kutch, Mannar, Malvan
(Maharashtra), Karnataka, Goa
fringing reefs: Andamans, atolls: Lakshadweep, patch reefs: Kutch
significance: extremely high biological productivity and biodiversity, fishing grounds,
reef and island formation
climatologically important: indicator of CC and pollution damage (extremely
sensitive)
reefs act as first line of defence against cyclones, tsunamis etc, protect from
wave erosion
CO2 sinks,
ecotourism,
source of certain medications and painkillers,
coral associated cyanobacteria can fix nitrogen
scientifically reliable records of climatic events over millions of years
can consume particulate matter in water → filtration
cycling of nutrients
challenges:
climate change → rising water temperature,
ocean acidification → corals under stress, declining carbonate concentration in
water (lowering lysocline, Carbonate Compensation Depth)
pollution (plastics, chemicals etc), eutrophication,
human footprint like aggressive tourism (like sunscreen), trawlers that scrape
the reefs,
Coast 6
coral smuggling: decoration, construction, jewellery
rise in natural disaster frequency and intensity: 5 cyclones hit western coast in
2019 (normally 0)
coastal infrastructure, land reclamation
sedimentation due to coastal erosion
invasive alien species
corals moving polewards due to rising temperatures, but hit by ocean acidification in
higher latitudes
solutions:
international collaboration like decennial STAPCOR summit
use of technology like bio-rock in Kutch (deposit CaCO3 chemically to jumpstart
coral reef formation)
CRZ guidelines to reduce human footprint
continuous monitoring and research into their behaviour and trends (use
satellites): INCOIS’s Coral Bleaching Alert System
enforce ban on coral trafficking (WCCB, SAWEN, CITES)
coral transportation in Mumbai for coastal road project
types of reefs: atoll, fringing, barrier
fringing reefs are formed attached to coastline (most common)
barrier reef are formed enclosing a lagoon with coastline
atolls are formed on or around a seamount, enclosing a lagoon of fresh or
brackish water
deep sea corals: no algae, occur in extra-tropical waters

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